Geriatric syndromes: clinical, research, and policy implications of a core geriatric concept.

Geriatric syndromes: clinical, research, and policy implications of a core geriatric concept.

Geriatricians have embraced the time period “geriatric syndrome,” utilizing it extensively to focus on the distinctive options of widespread well being circumstances in older folks. Geriatric syndromes, similar to delirium, falls, incontinence, and frailty, are extremely prevalent, multifactorial, and related to substantial morbidity and poor outcomes. Nevertheless, this central geriatric idea has remained poorly outlined. …

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Twenty years of research on cytokine-induced sickness behavior.

Cytokine-induced sickness habits was acknowledged inside a couple of years of the cloning and expression of interferon-alpha, IL-1 and IL-2, which occurred across the time that the primary challenge of Brain, Behavior, and Immunity was printed in 1987. Phase I scientific trials established that injection of recombinant cytokines into most cancers sufferers led to a …

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Neuroimaging standards for research into small vessel disease and its contribution to ageing and neurodegeneration.

Neuroimaging standards for research into small vessel disease and its contribution to ageing and neurodegeneration.

Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a standard accompaniment of ageing. Features seen on neuroimaging embrace current small subcortical infarcts, lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, perivascular areas, microbleeds, and mind atrophy. SVD can current as a stroke or cognitive decline, or can have few or no signs. SVD ceaselessly coexists with neurodegenerative disease, and can exacerbate …

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Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings

Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings

This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway …

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MeCP2 binds to non-CG methylated DNA as neurons mature, influencing transcription and the timing of onset for Rett syndrome

MeCP2 binds to non-CG methylated DNA as neurons mature, influencing transcription and the timing of onset for Rett syndrome

Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, regulate transcriptional programs to afford the genome flexibility in responding to developmental and environmental cues in health and disease. A prime example involving epigenetic dysfunction is the postnatal neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT), which is caused by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Despite decades of research, it remains unclear …

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Isogenic pairs of wild type and mutant induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from Rett syndrome patients as in vitro disease model

Isogenic pairs of wild type and mutant induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from Rett syndrome patients as in vitro disease model

Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum developmental dysfunction attributable to mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Excellent RTT mouse fashions have been created to review the disease mechanisms, resulting in many vital findings with potential therapeutic implications. These embrace the identification of many MeCP2 goal genes, higher understanding of the neurobiological penalties of the …

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Epigenetic control

Epigenetic control

Epigenetics refers to mitotically and/or meiotically heritable variations in gene expression that aren’t attributable to modifications in DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate all organic processes from conception to loss of life, together with genome reprogramming throughout early embryogenesis and gametogenesis, cell differentiation and upkeep of a dedicated lineage. Key epigenetic gamers are DNA methylation and …

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Rett syndrome: revised diagnostic criteria and nomenclature.

Rett syndrome: revised diagnostic criteria and nomenclature.

OBJECTIVERettsyndrome (RTT) is a extreme neurodevelopmental illness that impacts roughly 1 in 10,000 reside feminine births and is commonly brought on by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Despite distinct medical options, the buildup of medical and molecular data in recent times has generated appreciable confusion relating to the analysis of RTT. The goal of this work was …

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The genetics of autism

The genetics of autism

Autism is a fancy, behaviorally outlined, static dysfunction of the immature mind that’s of nice concern to the working towards pediatrician as a result of of an astonishing 556% reported enhance in pediatric prevalence between 1991 and 1997, to a prevalence larger than that of spina bifida, most cancers, or Down <em>syndrome</em>. This bounce might …

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