Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings

Citramalate synthase yields a biosynthetic pathway for isoleucine and straight- and branched-chain ester formation in ripening apple fruit

Citramalate synthase yields a biosynthetic pathway for isoleucine and straight- and branched-chain ester formation in ripening apple fruit

A plant pathway that initiates with the formation of citramalate from pyruvate and acetyl-CoA by citramalate synthase (CMS) is proven to contribute to the synthesis of α-ketoacids and vital odor-active esters in apple (Malus × domestica) fruit. Microarray screening led to the invention of a gene with excessive amino acid similarity to 2-isopropylmalate synthase (IPMS). However, practical …

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Metabolism and plasma protein binding of 16 straight- and branched-chain parabens in in vitro liver and skin models

Metabolism and plasma protein binding of 16 straight- and branched-chain parabens in in vitro liver and skin models

Parabens are alkyl esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA), with short-chain parabens used as antimicrobials in cosmetics. We investigated the influence of chain construction on skin and liver metabolism. Incubations with main human hepatocytes and human liver S9 indicated that methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben have been quickly metabolized to comparable metabolites, together with 4-HBA plus …

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Tracer movements in a straight uniform flow: New equations for the advective part considering the distortion of flow lines around the well

Tracer movements in a straight uniform flow: New equations for the advective part considering the distortion of flow lines around the well

Methods for decoding tracer assessments usually depend on equations assuming a pure regional flow which is straight and uniform. The most important goal of this undertaking was to develop extra reasonable equations for the advective part of contaminant transport, by together with the flow lines distortion occurring in the neighborhood of the injection well. The …

Tracer movements in a straight uniform flow: New equations for the advective part considering the distortion of flow lines around the well Read More »

Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings

Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings

This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway …

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